Monday, September 24, 2012

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)



  • Etiology

Foot-and-mouth disease virus, an aphthovirus

  • Epidemiology

Affects  ruminants  and pigs.  Highly contagious, usually  low mortality  but  great economic impact worldwide

  • Pathogenesis

Inha lation/ingestion----> oropharyngeal  infection----> viremia----> epidermal  cells-----> signs  and  lesions enhanced by mechanical  trauma

  • Clinical signs

Fever,  profuse  salivation, vesicles in mouth  and feet, sudden  death
in young animals

  • Clinical pathology/diagnostic confirmation

Virus  isolation,  serology and  RT-PCR detection. Typing confirmed  in a  reference  laboratory

  • Lesions

Vesicular, erosive/ulcerative stomatitis and esophagitis, vesicular/ulcerative dermatitis (feet and teats) and in neonates, interstitial mononuclear and necrotic myocarditis

  • Differential  diagnostic list 

  1. Vesicular stomatitis 
  2. Vesicular exanthema 
  3. Swine vesicular disease 
  4. Rinderpest 
  5. Bovine viral  diarrhea 

  • Treatment.

None except symptomatically. 

  • Control

Mass vaccination with  killed vaccines  in  endemic areas, eradication by slaughter when  feasible, and strict quarantine during outbreaks

Read full in book:

A textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats 
O. M.  Radostits 
K. W.  Hinchcliff 
P. D. Constable 

With  contributions by
S. H.  Done 
D.  E.  Jacobs 
B.  O.  Ikede 
R.  A.  McKenzie 
D.  Colwell 
G. Osweiler 
R.  J.  Bildfell 
Page # 1223

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